Shirley Allen is arrested for poisoning her husband, Lloyd Allen, with ethylene glycol, commonly known as anti-freeze. Soviet scientist and well-known human rights activist Andrei Sakharov begins a two-week visit to the United States. He ran without opposition, and the election simply confirmed the decision that had been made by the Confederate Congress earlier in the year. Like his Union counterpart, President After more than three months of bloody combat, the Third Battle of Ypres effectively comes to an end on November 6, , with a hard-won victory by British and Canadian troops at the Belgian village of Passchendaele.
Launched on July 31, , the Third Battle of Ypres was This Day In History. Vietnam War.
Sign Up. Cold War. He knows. I tell him all the time. Mariano: I love the challenges, camp life and the survival aspect; Sandra couldn't care less about that. I come for the adventure and the money; she basically just comes for the money. Diaz-Twine: I love eggs; Rob hates eggs. Rob knows how to spearfish, and I won't go in the deep water. Many of the Ottoman—Portuguese conflicts in which he was directly involved took place in the Indian Ocean, in the Persian Gulf regions for control of the trade routes, and on the coasts of India.
It was his military brilliance in these initial campaigns against the much larger Ottoman Empire and its allies that enabled Portugal to become the first global empire in history. For example, his capture of Ormuz in against the Persians was accomplished with a fleet of seven ships.
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He became admiral of the Indian Ocean, and was appointed head of the "fleet of the Arabian and Persian sea" in During the last five years of his life, he turned to administration,  where his actions as the second governor of Portuguese India were crucial to the longevity of the Portuguese Empire. Afonso de Albuquerque was born in in Alhandra , near Lisbon. His father held an important position at court and was connected by remote illegitimate descent with the Portuguese monarchy.
Alfonso de Albuquerque, surnamed the Great, by reason of the heroic deeds wherewith he filled Europe with admiration, and Asia with fear and trembling, was born in the year , in the Estate called, for the loveliness of its situation, the Paradise of the Town of Alhandra, six leagues distant from Lisbon. Leonor de Menezes, daughter of D. Guiomar de Castro, and corrected this injustice of nature by climbing to the summit of every virtue, both political and moral.
He was educated in the Palace of the King D.
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Afonso served 10 years in North Africa, where he gained military experience in fierce campaigns against Muslim powers and Ottoman Turks. In , under the command of Afonso V of Portugal , he was present at the conquest of Tangier and Arzila in Morocco ,  serving there as an officer for some years. He participated in the campaign on the Italian peninsula in to rescue Ferdinand II of Aragon from the Ottoman invasion of Otranto that ended in victory.
Afonso made his mark under the stern John II, and won military campaigns in Africa and the Mediterranean sea, yet Asia is where he would make his greatest impact.click here
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When King Manuel I of Portugal was enthroned, he showed some reticence towards Afonso, a close friend of his dreaded predecessor and seventeen years his senior. Eight years later, on 6 April , after a long military career and at a mature age, Afonso was sent on his first expedition to India together with his cousin Francisco de Albuquerque. They engaged in several battles against the forces of the Zamorin of Calicut Calecute , Kozhikode and succeeded in establishing the King of Cohin Cohim , Kochi securely on his throne.
This laid the foundation for the eastern Portuguese Empire. Afonso returned home in July , and was well received by King Manuel I. Afonso went as "chief-captain for the Coast of Arabia ", sailing under da Cunha's orders until reaching Mozambique. The fleet left Lisbon on 6 April Afonso piloted his ship himself, having lost his appointed pilot on departure.
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However, Socotra was abandoned four years later, as it was not advantageous as a base. On his way, he conquered the cities of Curiati Kuryat , Muscat in July , and Khor Fakkan , accepting the submission of the cities of Kalhat and Sohar. He arrived at Ormuz on 25 September and soon captured the city , which agreed to become a tributary state of the Portuguese king.
Hormuz was then a tributary state of Shah Ismail of Persia. In a famous episode, shortly after its conquest Albuquerque was confronted by Persian envoys, who demanded the payment of the due tribute from him instead. He ordered them to be given a stock of cannonballs, arrows and weapons, retorting that "such was the currency struck in Portugal to pay the tribute demanded from the dominions of King Manuel" .
Afonso began building the Fort of Our Lady of Victory later renamed Fort of Our Lady of the Conception ,  engaging his men of all ranks in the work. However, some of his officers revolted against the heavy work and climate and, claiming that Afonso was exceeding his orders, departed for India. With the fleet reduced to two ships and left without supplies, he was unable to maintain this position for long. Forced to abandon Ormuz in January , he raided coastal villages to resupply the settlement of Socotra, returned to Ormuz, and then headed to India.
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Afonso arrived at Cannanore on the Malabar coast in December , where he opened before the viceroy, Dom Francisco de Almeida, the sealed letter which he had received from the King, and which named as governor to succeed Almeida. Afonso avoided confrontation, which could have led to civil war, and moved to Kochi, India , to await further instruction from the King, maintaining his entourage himself. Increasingly isolated, he wrote to Diogo Lopes de Sequeira , who arrived in India with a new fleet, but was ignored as Sequeira joined the Viceroy.
At the same time, Afonso refused approaches from opponents of the Viceroy, who encouraged him to seize power. On 3 February , Almeida fought the naval Battle of Diu against a joint fleet of Mamluks , Ottomans , the Zamorin of Calicut , and the Sultan of Gujarat , regarding it as personal revenge for the death of his son.
His victory was decisive: the Ottomans and Mamluks abandoned the Indian Ocean, easing the way for Portuguese rule there for the next century. In August, after a petition from Afonso's former officers with the support of Diogo Lopes de Sequeira claiming him unfit for governance, Afonso was sent in custody to St.
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Angelo Fort in Cannanore. In September , Sequeira tried to establish contact with the Sultan of Malacca but failed, leaving behind 19 Portuguese prisoners. Afonso was released after three months' confinement, on the arrival at Cannanore of the Marshal of Portugal with a large fleet. On 4 November , Afonso became the second Governor of the State of India, a position he would hold until his death.
Almeida having returned home in ,  Afonso speedily showed the energy and determination of his character. Initially King Manuel I and his council in Lisbon tried to distribute the power, outlining three areas of jurisdiction in the Indian Ocean. He was succeeded by Duarte de Lemos, but left for Cochin and then for Portugal, leaving his fleet to Afonso.
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In January , obeying the orders from the King and aware of the absence of Zamorin , Afonso advanced on Calicut. The attack was unsuccessful, as Marshal Fernando Coutinho ventured into the inner city against instructions, fascinated by its richness, and was ambushed. During the rescue, Afonso was shot in the chest and had to retreat, barely escaping with his life. Coutinho was killed during the escape.
Soon after the failed attack, Afonso assembled a fleet of 23 ships and men. Contemporary reports state that he wanted to fight the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate fleet in the Red Sea or return to Hormuz. However, he had been informed by Timoji a privateer in the service of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire that it would be easier to fight them in Goa , where they had sheltered after the Battle of Diu,  and also of the illness of the Sultan Yusuf Adil Shah , and war between the Deccan sultanates.
He thus completed another mission, for Portugal wanted not to be seen as an eternal "guest" of Kochi and had been coveting Goa as the best trading port in the region. A first assault took place in Goa from 4 March to 20 May After initial occupation, feeling unable to hold the city given the poor condition of its fortifications, the cooling of Hindu residents' support and insubordination among his ranks following an attack by Ismail Adil Shah , Afonso refused a truce offered by the Sultan and abandoned the city in August.
His fleet was scattered, and a palace revolt in Kochi hindered his recovery, so he headed to Fort Anjediva. New ships arrived from Portugal, which were intended for the nobleman Diogo Mendes de Vasconcelos at Malacca, who had been given a rival command of the region. Three months later, on 25 November Afonso reappeared at Goa with a renovated fleet. Diogo Mendes de Vasconcelos was compelled to accompany him with the reinforcements for Malacca  and about Malabari reinforcements from Cannanore. It is estimated that of the Muslim defenders of the city died, either in the fierce battle in the streets or by drowning while trying to escape.
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