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He had also studied, on his own and during his presumed excursions to Celle, some French organ and instrumental music. Cantata No. His real reason for resigning on June 25, , is not known. It is generally supposed that he had become involved in a theological controversy between his own pastor Frohne and Archdeacon Eilmar of the Marienkirche. At all events, his resignation was accepted, and shortly afterward he moved to Weimar , some miles west of Jena on the Ilm River. Bach was, from the outset, court organist at Weimar and a member of the orchestra.
Encouraged by Wilhelm Ernst, he concentrated on the organ during the first few years of his tenure. From Weimar, Bach occasionally visited Weissenfels; in February he took part in a court celebration there that included a performance of his first secular cantata, Was mir behagt , also called the Hunt Cantata BWV Late in Bach had the opportunity of succeeding Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow at the Liebfrauenkirche, Halle ; but the duke raised his salary, and he stayed on at Weimar.
On March 2, , he became concertmaster, with the duty of composing a cantata every month. The latter was a talented composer who wrote concerti in the Italian manner, some of which Bach arranged for keyboard instruments ; the boy died in , in his 19th year. There are too few datable works.
From the series of cantatas written in —16, however, it is obvious that he had been decisively influenced by the new styles and forms of the contemporary Italian opera and by the innovations of such Italian concerto composers as Antonio Vivaldi. The results of this encounter can be seen in such cantatas as No. His favourite forms appropriated from the Italians were those based on refrain ritornello or da capo schemes in which wholesale repetition—literal or with modifications—of entire sections of a piece permitted him to create coherent musical forms with much larger dimensions than had hitherto been possible.
He was then succeeded by his son, who was rather a nonentity. The exact circumstances are not known, but Marchand avoided the contest by leaving Dresden a few hours before it should have taken place. By implication , Bach won. Perhaps this emboldened him to renew his request for permission to leave Weimar; at all events he did so but in such terms that the duke imprisoned him for a month November 6—December 2. There, as musical director, he was concerned chiefly with chamber and orchestral music.
The Brandenburg Concertos were finished by March 24, ; in the sixth concerto—so it has been suggested—Bach bore in mind the technical limitations of the prince, who played the gamba. At the same time, The Well-Tempered Clavier is a compendium of the most popular forms and styles of the era: dance types, arias , motets , concerti, etc. Maria Barbara Bach died unexpectedly and was buried on July 7, Nothing came of this, but he played at the Katharinenkirke in the presence of Reinken.
He was on the best terms with the prince, who was genuinely musical; and in Bach said that he had expected to end his days there. But the prince married on December 11, , and conditions deteriorated. He also had to think of the education of his elder sons, born in and , and he probably began to think of moving to Leipzig as soon as the cantorate fell vacant with the death of Johann Kuhnau on June 5, As the latter was not sure that he would be able to accept, Bach gave a trial performance Cantata No.
This he obtained on April 13, and on May 13 he was sworn in at Leipzig.
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As director of church music for the city of Leipzig, Bach had to supply performers for four churches. At the Peterskirche the choir merely led the hymns. At the Neue Kirche, Nikolaikirche, and Thomaskirche, part singing was required; but Bach himself conducted, and his own church music was performed, only at the last two. New works produced during this year include many cantatas and the Magnificat in its first version. The first half of saw the production of the St. John Passion , which was subsequently revised. The total number of cantatas produced during this ecclesiastical year was about 62, of which about 39 were new works.
On June 11, , the first Sunday after Trinity, Bach began a fresh annual cycle of cantatas, and within the year he wrote 52 of the so-called chorale cantatas, formerly supposed to have been composed over the nine-year period — During his first two or three years at Leipzig, Bach produced a large number of new cantatas, sometimes, as research has revealed, at the rate of one a week.
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The Baroque composer who submitted to the regimen inevitably had to be a traditionalist who willingly embraced the conventions. There is no point in looking for resurrection motifs in The Well-Tempered Clavier. Pictorialism, even when not codified into a doctrine, seems to be a fundamental musical instinct and essentially an expressive device.
It can, however, become more abstract, as in the case of number symbolism, a phenomenon observed too often in the works of Bach to be dismissed out of hand. Number symbolism is sometimes pictorial; in the St. As a result, it is easy to find symbolic numbers anywhere, but ridiculous to suppose that such discoveries invariably have a meaning. It is unteachable and unlearnable.
go site As a result of his intense activity in cantata production during his first three years in Leipzig, Bach had created a supply of church music to meet his future needs for the regular Sunday and feast day services. After , therefore, he turned his attention to other projects. He did, however, produce the St. Matthew Passion in , a work that inaugurated a renewed interest in the mids for vocal works on a larger scale than the cantata: the now-lost St. In addition to his responsibilities as director of church music, Bach also had various nonmusical duties in his capacity as the cantor of the school at Thomaskirche.
To some extent, no doubt, he accepted engagements because he needed money—he complained in that his income was less than he had been led to expect he remarked that there were not enough funerals —but, obviously, his routine work must have suffered. Friction between Bach and his employers thus developed almost at once.
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