Doctors have plenty of good reasons to persuade people with sleep apnea to get it treated. The widespread disorder causes disruptions in breathing at night, which can ruin sleep and raise the likelihood of problems like obesity and fatigue. But the mask may do more than restore normal breathing at night. Some research suggests it reduces inflammation, benefiting overall health. This model demonstrates that the lack of a mandatory helmet law increases overall health care costs to the state of Connecticut, and provides a framework by which hospital costs can be reduced to contribute to the economic stability of health care economics in the state.
Youth motorcycle-related brain injury by state helmet law type: United States, Twenty-seven states have youth-specific helmet laws even though such laws have been shown to decrease helmet use and increase youth mortality compared with all-age universal laws. Our goal was to quantify the impact of age-specific helmet laws on youth under age 20 hospitalized with traumatic brain injury TBI.
Our cross-sectional ecological group analysis compared TBI proportions among US states with different helmet laws. We examined the following null hypothesis: If age-specific helmet laws are as effective as universal laws , there will be no difference in the proportion of hospitalized young motorcycle riders with TBI in the respective states. We examined data for 17 states with universal laws , 6 states with laws for ages laws for children younger than 18 motorcycle injury discharges.
States with youth-specific laws had an increased risk of TBI that required hospitalization, serious and severe TBI, TBI-related disability, and in-hospital death among the youth they are supposed to protect. The only method known to keep motorcycle- helmet use high among youth is to adopt or maintain universal helmet laws.
Carter, Patrick M.
Methods We compared helmet use rates and motorcycle crash fatality risk for the 12 months before and after the April 13, , repeal with a statewide police-reported crash data set. We linked police-reported crashes to injured riders in a statewide trauma registry. We compared head injury before and after the repeal. Regression examined the effect of helmet use on fatality and head injury risk.
Results Helmet use decreased in crash The formulation and implementation of a national helmet law : a case study from Viet Nam. Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in Viet Nam. In recognition of this problem, Viet Nam has had partial motorcycle helmet legislation since However, for a variety of reasons, implementation and enforcement have been limited.
On 15 December , Viet Nam's first comprehensive mandatory helmet law came into effect, covering all riders and passengers on all roads nationwide. Penalties increased ten-fold and cohorts of police were mobilized for enforcement.
While changes in helmet wearing were not nationally observed, significant increases were documented in selected provinces in the first six months of the law 's introduction. Political leadership, intensive advanced public education and stringent enforcement have contributed to the successful implementation of the new law. Through continual monitoring of the legislation, loopholes detrimental to the effectiveness of the law have been identified and addressed. Florida's weakened motorcycle helmet law : effects on death rates in motorcycle crashes.
Effective July 1, , Florida's universal helmet law was amended to exclude riders ages 21 and older with insurance coverage providing at least 10, US dollars in medical benefits for injuries sustained in a motorcycle crash. This study examined the effects of the law change on the likelihood of death, given involvement in a motorcycle crash.
Rates of motorcyclist deaths per crash involvement in Florida for after the law change were compared with those for before the law change.
The motorcyclist death rate increased significantly after the law change, from Motorcyclist death rates increased for single- and multiple-vehicle crashes, for male and female operators, and for riders of all ages including those younger than It is estimated that motorcyclist deaths could have been avoided during if Florida's universal helmet law had remained in place.
This study provides evidence of the life-saving benefits of universal helmet laws. The results also suggest that age-specific helmet laws are not effective in protecting the youngest drivers. This is not surprising, as these laws are largely unenforceable. Bicycle helmet use in British Columbia : effects of the helmet use law.
An attempt was made to observe and record bicycle helmet use : and misuse , sex and estimated age of rider, bicycle type mountain, road, other , : use of special cycling clothing gloves and cycling pants , and use of a back pack or : bicycle pack In , Seattle implemented an all-ages bicycle helmet law ; King County outside of Seattle had implemented a similar law since For the period , the effect of the helmet legislation on helmet use, helmet -preventable injuries, and bicycle-related fatalities was examined, comparing Seattle to the rest of King County.
Results comparing the proportions of bicycle related head injuries before and after the law show no significant change in the proportion of bicyclists admitted to the hospital and treated for head injuries in either Seattle However, bicycle-related major head trauma as a proportion of all bicycle-related head trauma did decrease significantly in Seattle While the results do not show an overall decrease in head injuries, they do reveal a decrease in the severity of head injuries, as well as bicycle-related fatalities, suggesting that the helmet legislation was effective in reducing severe disability and death, contributing to injury prevention in Seattle and King County.
The promotion of helmet use through an all ages helmet law is a vital preventative strategy for reducing major bicycle-related head trauma. The effect of the Texas motorcycle helmet law on motorcycle crash fatalities. This study seeks to determine the effect of the Texas motorcycle helmet law on fatalities since the repeal of the universal helmet law in A sharp increase in fatality rates occurred immediately following the implementation of the law in September The parameter estimates of the ARIMA model 0,0,0 0,1,1 show that the change in the law led to statistically significant increases of 2.
The repeal of the universal helmet law in Texas in has had a significant adverse effect on motorcyclist fatalities in Texas. Factors associated with the enactment of safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. It has been shown that road safety laws , such as motorcycle helmet and safety belt laws , have a significant effect in reducing road fatalities.
Although an expanding body of literature has documented the effects of these laws on road safety, it remains unclear which factors influence the likelihood that these laws are enacted. This study attempts to identify the factors that influence the decision to enact safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. Using panel data from 31 countries between and , our results reveal that increased democracy, education level, per capita income, political stability, and more equitable income distribution within a country are associated with the enactment of road safety laws.
The effect of the Swedish bicycle helmet law for children: an interrupted time series study. Previous population-based research has shown that bicycle helmet laws can reduce head injury rates among cyclists. According to deterrence theory, such laws are mainly effective if there is a high likelihood of being apprehended. In this study, we investigated the effect of the Swedish helmet law for children under the age of 15, a population that cannot be fined.
Why Is It So Important To Wear A Helmet On Motorcycles?
An interrupted time series design was used. The main outcome measure was the proportion of head injury admissions per month.
Intervention effect estimates were obtained using generalized autoregressive moving average GARMA models. Pre-legislation trend and seasonality was adjusted for, and differences-in-differences estimation was obtained using adults as a non-equivalent control group. There was a statistically significant intervention effect among male children, where the proportion of head injuries dropped by 7.
There was no evidence of an intervention effect on the proportion of head injuries among female children. According to hospital admission data, the bicycle helmet law appears to have had an effect only on male children. This study, while quasi-experimental and thus not strictly generalizable, can contribute to increased knowledge regarding the effects of bicycle helmet laws. Abstract Problem Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in Viet Nam.
Approach On 15 December , Viet Nam's first comprehensive mandatory helmet law came into effect, covering all riders and passengers on all roads nationwide. Lessons learnt Political leadership, intensive advanced public education and stringent enforcement have contributed to the successful implementation of the new law.
Since the introduction of e-scooters in Berlin, police report 8 related traffic accidents
Cervical spine injuries and helmet laws : a population-based study. To assess the incidence of cervical spine C-spine injuries in patients admitted after motorcycle crash in states with mandatory helmet laws MHL compared with states without helmet laws or selective helmet laws. International Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, Ninth Edition codes were used to identify patients with a diagnosis of motorcycle crash and C-spine injuries.
National estimates were generated based on weighted analysis of the data. Outcome variables investigated were as follows: length of stay LOS , in-hospital mortality, hospital teaching status, and discharge disposition.
States were then stratified into states with MHL or selective helmet laws. A total of 30, discharges were identified. Of these, 2, 6. Patients in MHL states had a lower incidence of C-spine injuries 5. Patients older than 55 years were less likely to be discharged home Patients admitted to the hospital in states with MHLs have decreased rate of C-spine injuries than those patients admitted in states with more flexible helmet laws. Patients older than 55 years are more likely to die in the hospital, have a prolonged LOS, and require services after discharge.
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